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Tổng quan cấu tạo ô tô, các bộ phận chi tiết trên xe ô tô

To Rolling on the road, the structure of the car is extremely complicated. In which there are main parts, systems and details, auxiliary systems.

The basic car structure includes the following parts and details:

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Car engine


The engine is the most important car part, like the “heart” of the car. Engine helps to generate mechanical energy from converting some form of energy such as heat (internal combustion engine) or electricity (electric motor).

The engine is the most important car part, likened to the “heart” of the car

The engine’s mechanical energy source provides torque to the wheels, so that the car can move in reciprocating motion. In addition, the engine also helps drive many other auxiliary devices such as generators, power steering pumps, etc.

There are many types of automobile engines. In which the most used is the 4-stroke internal combustion engine. However, nowadays, “green” engines such as electric motors or hybrid engine is growing strongly, more and more popular and tends to gradually replace the internal combustion engine.

See details: Automobile engine construction

Car gearbox


Automotive transmission is one of the main components of the transmission system. The gearbox plays an intermediary role to help transmit rotational motion from the engine to the drive system (drive bridge) with the gear ratio changing flexibly according to each operating condition. Since the engine only produces maximum power and torque, it is necessary to arrange an additional gearbox so that the vehicle can increase/decelerate.

The gearbox helps to transmit rotational motion from the engine to the drive system with the gear ratio changing flexibly according to each operating condition.

There are two main types of gearboxes: gearbox and automatic transmission. In the automatic transmission group, there are many other branches such as AT automatic transmission, CVT . automatic transmission, DCT . dual clutch transmission… Each type has a different automobile transmission structure.

See details: Structure and advantages and disadvantages of all types of automatic transmissions

Drive system


In the structure of a car, the drive system is responsible for receiving movement from the gearbox and transmitting it to the active wheels. There are many types of drive systems such as: front-wheel drive (2 front wheels), rear-wheel drive (2 rear wheels), 2-wheel drive (4 wheels full-time or part-time) …

The car’s drive system is responsible for receiving movement from the transmission and transmitting it to the active wheels

Depending on the type, the drive system will have different structures. However, usually the drive system consists of a semi-axle or axle that transmits power from the gearbox to the active wheels, the axles help transmit power from the gearbox or differential to the wheel axles.

See details: Advantages and disadvantages of different types of car drive systems

Suspension system


The suspension system is a car part that has the function of supporting the entire body of the vehicle above the beam frame. This system helps the vehicle to move firmly, stably and smoothly.

The car suspension system helps the car move firmly, stably and smoothly

The suspension structure consists of: elastomer, guide and shock absorber. The construction of these components will vary depending on the type of suspension.

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See details:

Drive system


The steering system is responsible for guiding the wheel movement to the will of the driver. The automobile steering system is composed of three main parts: steering drive, steering mechanism and power steering.

See details: Construction of a car steering system

The steering system is responsible for guiding the movement of the vehicle to the will of the driver

Wheel system


Wheels are one of the most important parts of a car, playing the role of turning the rotational motion transmitted from the axles/axles into reciprocating motion, helping the vehicle to move. The structure of the wheel includes lazang (wheel) and tires. Tires are the only part of the vehicle in contact with the road surface. Tires help to minimize shocks and create grip when the vehicle is on the road.

Wheels convert the rotational motion transmitted from the axles/axles into reciprocating motion, helping the vehicle to move

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See details:

Brake system


The brake system helps the vehicle to slow down or come to a complete stop when needed. There are two types of car brakes, disc brakes and drum brakes. In addition to the main brake system located on the wheels, the car also has a handbrake system to keep the car stationary when stopping or parking for a long time.

See details: Construction of car brake system

The brake system helps the vehicle to slow down or come to a complete stop when needed

Power system


The automotive electrical system is likened to the “nervous system” of the vehicle when it helps to generate electricity and supply power to the systems inside the engine such as the starter system, the ignition system, the fuel injection system, and the ignition system. engine control system… In addition, it also supplies power to the car lights, car horns, entertainment equipment – amenities such as air conditioners, car screens, car speakers…

See details: Automotive electrical system construction

Automotive electrical systems help provide power for systems inside the engine, for car lights, car horns, entertainment and convenience devices.

Security system


Car safety systems are additional features and technologies installed on vehicles to enhance and ensure safety for drivers and passengers. Modern cars today have extremely rich and advanced safety systems.

Car safety systems are additional features and technologies installed on vehicles to enhance and ensure safety for drivers and passengers.

Basic safety features include: air bagseat belts, parking sensors, Anti-lock brake system, fesdfcxcx, Hill start assist system… Some advanced safety features such as: 360 degree camera, Lane Departure Warning Systemanti-collision system…

See details: Today’s popular car safety technology systems

Air conditioning system


The air conditioning system is a car part that, although not directly related to the operation of the vehicle, greatly affects the user experience. Car air conditioners are usually 2-way type that can both cool and heat. The structure of car air conditioner includes air conditioner block, outdoor unit, indoor unit, gas filter…

See details: Structure and working principle of car air conditioner

The structure of car air conditioner includes air conditioner block, outdoor unit, indoor unit, gas filter…

Body frame


Beam frames and bodywork play a very important role in the automobile structure. This is the foundation that supports and connects all car parts to form a unified vehicle. The beam frame and body shell not only help to wrap and shape the outside shape and internal structure, but also greatly affect the stability and safety of the vehicle when moving. There are two types of chassis structure: body on frame and unibody.

See details: Construction of car body frame

Car exterior


The car exterior parts include:

Grille: The grille is the place that allows air from outside to enter the engine compartment, thereby providing the intake air for the car engine, and at the same time helping to reduce heat and cool the engine compartment when the engine is operating. In addition to this function, the grille is also one of the details on a car that greatly affects the aesthetics and exterior design of the car. Each car manufacturer usually has its own unique grille style.

Bumper: The bumper is an assembly that covers the lower part of the vehicle’s front (front bumper) and the lower rear end (rear bumper). The purpose of the bumper is to minimize damage if a collision occurs from the front or from the rear. Bumpers can be metal, monolithic with the body or plastic.

Capo cap: The bonnet is a metal plate installed at the top of the car, which can be opened / closed. Below the bonnet is the engine compartment. The arrangement of the bonnet makes inspection, maintenance and repair of parts inside the engine compartment more convenient and easier.

Car exterior parts

Wiper: Wipers are a car part that has the function of removing rain water and dirt on the windshield to help the driver get the best vision, especially when driving in bad weather conditions.

Light system: The car light system includes front lights (far & near mode), turn signals (front, rear and on the rearview mirror), daytime positioning lights, fog lights, rear lights, reverse lights, brake lights. on high… Depending on the use, each type of lamp has different structure and characteristics.

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See details: Types of lights on cars

Vehicle glass system: The car glass system helps to protect against rain, wind, dust, etc., including the front windshield, rear rear glass and window glass.

Door system: The car door system helps to close / open the exit / entry to the car. In addition to the doors on both sides of the car, the car also has a rear door or trunk door, a sunroof.

Outside rearview mirror: External rearview mirrors are installed on the left and right sides of the A-pillar or near the A-pillar. The mirror helps the driver to observe the sides and the area near the rear of the vehicle.

See details: How to properly adjust the rearview mirror

In addition, the car’s exterior also has other parts such as fenders, antennas, fuel tank covers, etc.

car furniture


The interior parts of the car interior include:

Steering wheel: The steering wheel is a part of the steering system. Through the steering wheel, the driver can control the car to move in the right direction. For convenience, now car manufacturers also integrate on the steering wheel many function keys such as car horn, control listen / call, sound, mode, etc. Cruise Control… Behind the steering wheel, there is a joystick to control the car lights, a joystick to control the wipers. Some cars have extra gearshift paddles.

Dashboard: The dashboard behind the steering wheel displays important parameters such as vehicle speed, engine rpmengine coolant temperature, available fuel, distance traveled… In addition, the dashboard also has a warning light system for vehicle failure or dangerous situations, and operating status of features. , driving mode…

See details: Meaning of warning lights on cars

Gear lever: The gearshift lever is usually located in the center pedestal – located between the driver’s seat and the front passenger seat. Through the gearshift lever, the driver can shift gears – control the alignment of the gears inside the gearbox to change the speed of the vehicle or select the appropriate driving mode.

Hand brake: The handbrake has 2 types of mechanical handbrake (lever) and electronic handbrake (button) to help the driver lock/unlock the handbrake when needed.

Car interior parts

Control pedal system: With automatic transmission cars, the bottom of the floor has only the gas pedal (right) and the brake pedal (in the middle). The manual transmission car has an additional clutch – clutch pedal (on the left).

Dashboard: The center console (taplo) is where the control system of most of the equipment and features on the car is arranged such as the lock / start button, entertainment screen, speakers, air conditioner, glass drying / heating. , seat heating/cooling…

Car door panel: The car door control panel is usually integrated on the driver’s side door, including buttons: lock/unlock all car doors and tailgate (trunk), turn on/off the power windows… In addition, this control panel also has add button to adjust the outside rearview mirror.

Inside rearview mirror: The rearview mirror in the car is installed near the center of the top edge of the windshield, helping the driver see the space behind the rear of the car.

Seat system: Car seats are padded seats, upholstered in leather or felt. The driver and front passenger seats can be adjusted electrically or mechanically in many directions. The rear seats can be folded / reclined flexibly.

In addition, the car interior also has other details such as: mirror / makeup mirror, interior lights, drawers / boxes / compartments / bags, central armrests for front and rear seats…

Minh Nghia

Nguồn: https://bonbanh365.com
Danh mục: Hỏi đáp

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